Bladder carcinoma in men ( )
Bladder cancer is when there is a growth of abnormal tissue, called tumor, that develops in the bladder lining. The most common symptom is blood in the urine which usually occurs painless. The tumor can spread, in some cases, into the surrounding muscles. Bladder cancer is a malignant cancer type. It affects older men three times more often than women.
Bladder cancer constitutes 2% of all malignant diseases. Men are about 3 times more likely than women to develop it. The average age of those with the disease is between 65 and 70. Frequent contact with various chemical substances, smoking, frequent urinary tract infections, as well as radiation therapy can favour the development of bladder cancer. Bladder cancer generally originates in the cells lining the bladder (ureothelial carcinoma, also called transitional cell carcinoma). It may have a single point of origin (unifocal), but usually there are several foci (multifocal). There are multiple degrees of severity of bladder cancer depending on how advanced tumor growth is, which structures in the bladder wall are affected, and even if other surrounding organs are affected. Treatment depends on the severity of the cancer.
Dark urine, Decreased urine stream, Frequent urination, Painful urination
Patients usually end up visiting a doctor when they notice blood in their urine (macrohematuria) without the presence of any pain. Besides blood in urine, other symptoms during urination can occur. Advanced stages may present with flank pains, which are due to the poor transportation of urine from the kidneys into the bladder. In about 20% of cases there are no symptoms accompanying bladder cancer. Routine urine analysis can find a microscopic amount of blood in the urine (microhematuria) and signs of white blood cells in the urine.
If the symptoms listed above appear, then an ultrasound should be done to eliminate the possibility of other diseases. Next, an endoscopy of the bladder is performed, which allows a view of the bladder’s surface. Abnormalities around the bladder can then be cleared or samples can be taken. Sometimes it’s possible to obtain cells to determine if the type of cancer. This is done with repeated flushing of the bladder via a urinary catheter. To determine whether it’s a case of micro- or macrohematuria, a urogram is conducted. With consideration to the findings and the general condition of the patient, the patient and doctor can discuss proper treatment. The following options for treatment are available: complete removal of the tumor via cystoscopy, local chemotherapy (direct to the bladder), BCG immunotherapy, partial or complete removal of the bladder and surrounding lymph nodes via operation (with different methods for allowing urine to drain), radiation therapy, and chemotherapy (in combination). The decision must be made on an individual basis for each patient. Discussing options with your doctor is highly recommended.