Menstrual problems:

Dysmenorrhoea ( Painful periods,Menstrual cramps )

Dysmenorrhea describes spasmodic pain associated with menstruation. It can be classified into primary and secondary dysmenorrhea. More than half of all women have discomfort during menstruation. Painkillers and oral contraceptives can help to relieve the symptoms.

Full Description

Dysmenorrhea is a long-lasting and spasmodic pain occurring during the period of menstruation. It is the most common problem for women during menstruation. More than half of all women undergo these discomforts for several days every month.


Abdominal pain, Weight gain, Back pain, Distended abdomen, Abdominal pain associated with menstruation, Vomiting, Bleeding from vagina

Medical Conditions

Depending on its first appearance, dysmenorrhea can be classified in two types: 1) Primary dysmenorrhea: the type of dysmenorrhea which appears from the first time a girl has her menstruation and it only happens during or a short-time before the period of menstruation. It is not caused by a disease but by the physiological hormone produced by the lining of the uterus, which is called prostaglandin. Normally some women with primary dysmenorrhea may feel pain before menstruation starts, and the pain may become worse when the level of prostaglandin further increases during menstruation. 2) Secondary dysmenorrhea: This type of dysmenorrhea firstly appears anytime in life. There are mostly underlying disorders of the female reproductive system such as endometriosis, adenomyosis, fibroids or a myoma that cause menstrual pain. The pain caused by secondary dysmenorrhea is usually also worst during menstruation but it will not necessarily improve after the period of menstruation. Instead, the pain may appear later in the cycle and become worse instead of getting better. Therefore, the pain can last much longer than a normal period of menstruation. A secondary dysmenorrhea should always be checked by a gynecologist.


Treatments of dysmenorrhea are mainly aimed at relieving the pain. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs can lower the level of prostaglandin and therefore reduce the pain. Hormone medications such as estrogen and progesterone, which are used to prevent pregnancy, can also be effective in reducing dysmenorrhea. Sometimes changes of lifestyle can also help, for example, getting enough rest and sleep. In secondary dysmenorrhea and if medication does not improve the pain, it is important to search for an underlying problem. If there is any underlying disease, it must be treated respectively.