Osteoporosis ( )
Osteoporosis is characterized by loss of bone substance of the whole body, thinning or shrinking the trabeculae. This leads to the bones becoming fragile, so that they break easier or spontaneously. Frequent fractures of e.g. vertebral bodies, thigh- or forearm bones can occur.
Osteoporosis is a common disease. Various causes lead to the dissolving of body salts from the bones, and the bone becomes porous. It is characterized by a reduction in bone density, which leads to an increased risk of breaking bones throughout the entire skeleton. The most common fractures are the vertebrae, femur (nearest the hips), forearm (near the wrist), head of the humerus, and the pelvis.
Numbness in the arm, Numbness in the leg, Lower-back pain, Immobilization, Uncontrolled defecation, Limited mobility of the leg, Mouth ulcers, Mouth pain, Dry mouth, Tongue swelling, Difficulty in swallowing, Tongue burning, Sputum, Sore throat, Cough, Impairment of male potency, Blackhead, Dry mouth, Runny nose, Sleeplessness, Nausea, Stuffy nose, Cough with sputum, Mouth pain, Reduced appetite, Abdominal pain, Diarrhea, Hard defecation, Difficult defecation, Nausea, Incomplete defecation, Bloated feeling in the stomach, Less than 3 defecations per week, Swelling in the genital area, Swelling of the testicles, Testicular pain, Neck pain, Numbness in the arm, Pain radiating to the arm, Limited mobility of the back, Ankle swelling, Limited mobility of the ankle, Foot swelling, Double vision, Reduced appetite, Increased appetite, Weight loss, Weight gain, Difficulty to concentrate, Headache, Nervousness, Sleeplessness, Forgetfulness, Anxiety, Vomiting blood, Diarrhea, Tiredness, Dizziness, Pallor, Blackening of vision, Vomiting, Nausea, Black stools, Pallor, Vomiting, Weight loss, Swollen glands in the neck, Black stools, Heartburn, Nausea, Vomiting blood, Reduced appetite, Cough, Tiredness, Abdominal pain, Sore throat, Bloated feeling in the stomach, Sweating, Stomach burning, Burning in the throat, Early satiety, Bloated feeling in the stomach, Heartburn, Reduced appetite, Vomiting, Abdominal pain, Nausea, Sore throat, Distended abdomen, Abdominal pain, Vomiting blood, Early satiety, Cough, Stomach burning, Hiccups, Black stools, Heartburn, Reduced appetite, Back pain, Lower-back pain, Limited mobility of the back, Neck pain, Pain radiating to the arm, Chest pain, Joint instability, Morning stiffness, Joint swelling, Joint pain, Hand swelling, Ankle swelling, Limited mobility of the back, Limited mobility of the leg, Limited mobility of the fingers, Limited mobility of the ankle, Knee pain, Physical inactivity, Foot swelling, Sleeplessness, Joylessness, Nervousness, Reduced appetite, Anxiety, Aggressiveness, Eyelid swelling, Eyelids sticking together, Eye pain, Bleeding in the conjunctiva of the eye, Eye redness, Ringing in the ear, Impaired hearing, Hearing loss, Feeling of pressure in the ear, Impaired balance, Vision impairment, Skin redness, Formation of blisters on a skin area, Facial swelling, Lip swelling, Skin rash, Wound, Skin rash, Skin nodules, Skin thickening, Hardening of the skin, Dry skin, Crusting, Skin redness, Fever, Skin rash, Skin redness, Swollen glands in the neck, Swollen glands in the armpit, Swollen glands in the groin, Leg swelling, Joint pain, Pain in the limbs, Headache, Itching of skin, Foot swelling, Toe swelling, Non-healing skin wound, Irregular mole, Scar, Difficulty in swallowing, Swollen glands in the groin, Skin rash, Genital warts, Swollen glands in the neck, Hair loss, Eye redness, Skin nodules, Shortness of breath, Fever, Joint pain, Weight loss, Skin rash, Skin redness, Cough, Tiredness, Eye redness, Eye pain, Foot pain, Skin nodules, Scar, Numbness in the leg, Muscular atrophy in the leg, Muscular weakness in the leg, Foot pain, Tingling, Blood in stool, Hard defecation, Painful defecation, Cramps, Pain of the anus, Itching of the anus, Muscular weakness in the arm, Pain radiating to the arm, Face pain, Lockjaw, Earache, Stress-related leg pain, Limited mobility of the ankle, Pain radiating to the arm, Hand pain, Arm swelling, Muscular weakness in the arm, Muscular atrophy of the arm, Tingling, Swelling of the testicles, Cough, Bulging abdominal wall, Weight loss, Testicular pain, Shortness of breath, Bone fracture, Pain in the bones, Back pain, Neck pain
Osteoporosis mainly affects elderly persons and, within this group, mainly women. Most common reason is a vitamin D deficiency; in women it is mainly hormonal changes after the menopause that causes calcium and phosphate to dissolve from the bone. The bone mass decreases, the bones are not as robust anymore and typical fractures and related pain occur. Spontaneous fractures (without any hit- or push-impact) most commonly occur in the vertebrae, but also in the pelvis or the forearm. Low bone-stability leads to frequent typical fractures that can occur either spontaneously or following slight traumata.
Blood tests and bone density measurements with certain x-rays can help the doctor to diagnose osteoporosis. Besides tending to existing fractures, treatment will depend on the identified causes. A diet rich in calcium and vitamin D as well as regular exercise are very important in the prevention and reduction of bone loss. Foods that are high in calcium include dairy products (milk, yogurt, and cheese), dried figs, almonds, sesame seeds, cod liver oil, salmon, and chicken eggs. Because vitamin D is produced predominantly after sun exposure in the skin and is not easily absorbed from digested foods, it’s recommended that people from 65 years onwards use calcium and vitamin D dietary supplements to prevent osteoporosis. If the presence of osteoporosis is confirmed in a bone density test (a densitometry or dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry or DXA), treatment with calcium and vitamin D should be started immediately. Additionally, a class of medications called bisphosphonates may be used to stop further bone loss. Often intake of vitamin D and calcium can be sufficient, but sometimes more comprehensive measures may be necessary.