Diabetes is one of the most prevalent diseases, especially in the Arab world. It occurs as a result of an imbalance in the secretion of insulin and consequently leads to high blood sugar.
First, what is diabetes?
It occurs as a result of damage that occurs to the beta cells present in the pancreas, which is responsible for insulin secretion, which helps to consume glucose molecules to the muscles for energy and also to the liver cells for storage. Thus when these cells are damaged, insulin secretion is caused by a small percentage or not excreted entirely, so the body cannot consume Glucose and thus the blood glucose level.
There are some cases where the reason is the body’s inability to use insulin and respond to it properly despite its regularity, so a blood sugar disorder occurs.
Normal blood sugar:
It is known that the normal percentage in the case of a person fasting for eight hours is: less than 108 mg / dl.
In normal cases, the ratio is 126 mg / dl.
If the ratio exceeds 126 mg / dl in two consecutive or more measurements, the person is diagnosed with diabetes.
Reasons that may lead to diabetes:
– obesity .
Lack of physical activity.
A diet that lacks healthy eating. Ready foods currently increase the incidence of the disease.
Types of diabetes:
The first type :
In it, the immune system attacks the beta cells that are found in the pancreas, which are responsible for secreting insulin instead of attacking harmful bodies from germs and microbes .. Consequently, it produces a small amount of insulin or is completely absent, which increases blood sugar.
The genetic factor remains an important factor in developing type 1 diabetes for people with a genetic history of the disease.
But it is not known yet the true cause of the first type.
The second type:
And in it cells resist the work of insulin and sugar builds up in the blood in people who have prediabetes. Doctors did not reach the real reason behind this, but it is one of the factors that may lead to excess fat, especially in the abdominal area, as well as lack of physical activity.
Gestational Diabetes :
It happens to some women during pregnancy, especially in the second and third trimesters, as a result of the placenta secreting some hormones that may impede the work of insulin naturally what is called insulin resistance so that sugar builds up in the blood from what is called gestational diabetes .. In normal cases the pancreas reacts naturally and increases the rate of insulin To overcome insulin resistance, but when the pancreas cannot do the job, pregnancy sugar occurs.
Signs of diabetes:
1- There are some of the most common early signs that may confirm diabetes. They are:
– Excessive hunger on an ongoing basis, as a result of the accumulation of sugar in the blood and the failure to reach cells, and therefore the body searches for another source of fuel, so the person feels constant hunger.
– Frequent urination, also due to the accumulation of sugar in the blood, which stimulates the kidneys to get rid of excess sugar in the blood by urinating.
– Thirst and dry mouth due to frequent urination and the loss of many body fluids, so the person always feels very thirsty and the need to drink water, and itchy skin may appear.
– Fatigue and fatigue, as a result of the cells not benefiting from the sugar in the blood and not getting enough fuel, so the person feels permanent fatigue and the inability to do tasks despite good eating and adequate sleep.
Poor vision, inability to see clearly, and difficulty concentrating on the details of things.
2- Symptoms of type 1 diabetes:
Significant weight loss despite good eating as a result of the body’s tendency to search for an alternative to energy and break down protein in the muscles.
– Intestinal disturbances, because when the body turns to another alternative to energy, it also burns stored fats, resulting in ketones, which is called the ketogenic state (and the keto system is a system used to lose weight by stopping carbohydrates so the body consumes fat and lose weight)
3- Symptoms of type 2 diabetes:
Feeling of numbness and tingling in the extremities as a result of nerve damage from the accumulation of glucose in the blood and sometimes it leads to a lack of feeling in the limbs.
– The large number of infections as a result of a yeast infection that feeds on glucose and appears between the fingers and feet, under the breast, and around the genitals.
Delayed wound healing and scratches are among the leading signs of diabetes.
Methods for detecting diabetes:
– By analyzing urine, which shows excess glucose in the urine.
– By analyzing blood and measuring glucose in the blood, it can be done locally through a blood glucose meter or in the laboratory by drawing a sample to confirm.
If you feel any of the above symptoms, you should hurry up and make sure to check. The sooner you discover the disease, the better and can be corrected.